The Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD), a lethal-yellowing type disease of coconut has been in Ghana since 1932. The disease is caused by a phytoplasma and is found in Africa and the Caribbean. The symptoms of the disease are premature nut drop with or without yellowing of fronds and blackening of immature inflorescences. This is followed by progressive yellowing or in some instances browning of the crown from the older leaves upwards. Eventually, the crown turns yellow, dries up and then falls off, leaving a bare trunk or “telephone pole”.
Two types of spread of CSPWD have been observed. In one type, a local centre of infection appears in one or two palms; this is followed by new cases appearing at random around the initial centre. The second is a “jump spread” whereby the disease appears at a spot remote from a known focus. This is then followed by a local spread in all directions.
The disease epidemic which began around Cape Saint Paul in Woe near Keta destroyed thousands of coconut palms and caused the collapse of the coconut industry in the Volta region by the mid-1950s. The disease appeared in the Western region at Cape Three Points in 1964 and in the Central region at Ayensudo in 1983. The history, occurrence, epidemiology and spread of the disease in Ghana have been reported by Johnson and Harries, Ofori and Nkansah-Poku and Dery et al.
Publication date: 8/27/2009
Evidence of the Cape St. Paul wilt disease which has already destroyed millions of coconut plants in the region. Taken at Axim 2003.
Success Wishes; The Executives and the entire membership of the Nzema Youth Association wishes all students sitting for this year`s Senior High School Examinations the very best of luck in their final examinations.
“These are trying times and you need all the courage and determinations to rise above challenges as you sit for the examination, you are not alone, the entire Nation is behind you in faith and actions”
We plead with you to be faithful and avoid any act of malpractice which could lead to any form of punishment on you. We wish to remind you that your solely effort will give you the crown of success at the end of these series of exams in your life! If you disown the opportunity to shine in your exams, life’s opportunities will disown you as well, so persevere hard and by your efforts and God`s blessings you will be what you wish to be.
To all students in the Nzema areas it is Obvious that times are not easy for most of our schools identified as under-performing but with the support and commitment of all stakeholders, especially you as a student it is our hope that you improve on this year’s 2013 WASSCE results. It is your opportunity to shine and make yourself as well as all of us proud.
You are capable of scoring the best grades ever, take up the tasks with all the seriousness. Wishing you the best of flying colours peace be on you all. Good Luck. Nuhu Mohammed Public Relation Officer Nzema YouthAssociation
Prepare in advance. Know which types of tests you struggle with and learn or practice test-taking skills.
Review any returned tests. Check for mistakes in grading and study the comments written by the grader.
Know the time, date, and place of the exam and what you need to bring.
Start studying at least three days before the test.
Develop an aggressive yet realistic attitude. Accept that you will do your best but also accept the limits of what you know at the moment.
Don’t talk about the test with other students immediately before taking it if it makes you more nervous.
Relax. Put your pencil down and take several deep breaths to clear your mind.
Read all directions before you start answering questions, then look over the test and plan your approach. Don’t hesitate to ask for clarification from the professor or TA if you have questions about the directions or anything else.
Answer easy questions first and then work on the harder ones.
Activity reduces anxiety. If you go blank while answering a question, simply go on to the next question or section. For essays, write down anything that comes to mind on scratch paper to stimulate your memory.
Pay attention to the test, not yourself or others. Don’t worry about how fast others work.
Keep track of time. Limit the time spent on each section to make sure you finish with a few minutes left to go over your answers